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There are several ways to control ceiling fans and light kits.
One Wire vs Two Wire Switch Wall Control
A one wire configuration uses one switch and one line wire to control power to a fan (and lights).
A two wire configuration uses two switches and two line wires each to control power to a fan and lights.
Line voltage enters the switch outlet box and the line wire connects to each switch. Switched lines and neutral connect to a 3-wire cable that travels to the light/fan outlet box in the ceiling.
The fan control switch usually connects to the black wire and the light kit switch to the red wire of the 3-way cable.
In this diagram, the black wire of the ceiling fan is for the fan, and the blue wire is for the light kit.
Ground connection diagram is shown separately.
3-wire cable travels from the switch box and connects to the fan, lights, neutral, and ground wires.
Ceiling Fan and Lights Outlet Box